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KHMEL'NYTS'KYI BOHDAN (1648-1657)

Zenoviy-Bohdan Mykhailovytsh Khmel'nyts'kyi was born in 1595. Education Bohdan Khmel'nyts'kyi has received at the Kyiv brotherly school and at Jesuit school in Jaroslav above Syan river. Upon termination of education Bohdan has entered in cossacs army. In August 1621 with 10000 Cossacks he has departed in the sea, where has sunk 12 turkish ships, and the residual of the ships bullied up to Istanbul. In 1629 the Cossacks under the direction of Khmel'nyts'kyi burned of turkish capital suburbs. In 1647 on Sich Khmel'nyts'kyi has declared the schedule of preparation of national liberation war. In May, 8th, 1648 under Zhovti Vody Cossacs army won of the Poles. In one week the Polish army again was broken under Korsun'. The king Vladislav IV at this time has died. Khmel'nyts'kyi has not taken advantage of a situation and, instead of an immediate march to Warsaw, has entered negotiations, which in anything have not reduced. In September 1648 the Cossacks once again victored of Polish army, have taken in siege L'viv and have reached up to Zamostya, whence there was a direct road to Warsaw. But Khmel'nyts'kyi again has wasted time, expecting choices of the new king. In the spring 1649 Khmel'nyts'kyi in union with khan the Islam-Girey began battle operations, has surrounded and victored of a Polish army under Zbaragh and has taken in a captivity of the king. But he again did not use favorable circumstances and began negotiations with captive king. The agreement did not answer neither national dreams, nor actual force Cossacs army, then delicacy of Polish government. Authority and popularity Khmel'nyts'kyi in Ukraine has shaked.
In September, 17th, 1651 under Bila Tserkva he signed humiliating for Ukraine the agreement, which decreased territory and quantity Cossacs, forced the peasants to discharge the duties. In January, 8th, 1654 Pereyaslav Councel has decided to connect Ukraine to Moskovia on such conditions: Ukraine saves all former orders and home rule; het'man saves the right on the international relations; the quantity of Cossacs is magnified up to 60000; all Ukrainian gentry saves behind herself the old rights and freedoms. Het'mans government has undertaken to pay reign taxes. King, with the side, promised to protect Ukraine from Polish expansion. Cossacs the foreman and clergy sharply negatively referred to idea of annexation and in many cases refused to swear Moscow. Khmel'nyts'kyi again has failed to orient in a situation: the demurs between Moscow and Poland have not reduced in a positive take. Bohdan has died in August, 6th, 1657.

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